For example, if a cattle had 32 goats in ancient times, he would have drawn 32 lines somewhere. And later in time suppose some goats died or some goats disappeared, then he would cut some of those lines. But suppose Later on, if he bought some more goats or if some more goats were born, he would have easily added some lines to it and in this way, his calculation remains as it is. It kept on changing with time and it didn’t have any problems, so it could be calculated without zero.

But now a question also arises that suppose there was a very rich cattle owner in ancient times and he had two 2000- 2500 goats. So will he keep drawing lines? This means he will then fill the rock by drawing the line, even though this was not a very difficult task. Because what did he do then? He must have developed a system. What would he have done? He must have given a new symbol to 10 lines, 20 lines, or 25 lines. And when he needed to make 25 lines, he must have made that symbol.

Let’s say, for example, he has to count 545 goats so he would not have made 545 lines for 545 goats. He must have developed some system in which he must have given a symbol to the 100 lines first. For example, suppose the symbol of + has been given to 100 lines. And some symbols have been given to 10 lines if suppose he told 10 lines are equal to the #.

Then now he thought that he has to make 545 lines in this, we will have to make 100 lines 5 times at least. What would he have done 5 times? 5 times he must have made +. Then after that, he looked ahead that 45 more lines have to be made. Then if he makes 4 more lines of 10 – 10 then 40 more will be covered. Then he made 4 # again, then he made 5 +, made 4 #. Then 5 lines left, he made 5 lines.